“Walter” was the alias of a myth-enshrouded resistance fighter in Sarajevo, whose identity the Nazi occupiers were unable to find out. In our project, the question “Wer ist Walter?” is symbolic of the observation that we in Europe often know little to nothing about the history(s) of resistance to Nazism and Nazi occupation during World War Two in other European countries.

With this project, we want to strengthen the exchange and knowledge about resistance to Nazism in Europe and how it has been dealt with since 1945. The differences and similarities in the history and memory of resistance to Nazism in Europe will be examined on the basis of four countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, France and Germany.

Concerning the reception of the resistance against the Nazi regime from 1945 to the present day, the project focuses on two dimensions: the historical research on the topic and its presentation in museums. The content will be developed with a team of historians and curators from the four countries in four workshops and three conferences. At the end of the project there will be three complementary outputs: a scientific publication, an educational online portal and an exhibition in the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The project is organized by crossborder factory (Berlin/ Germany), the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo), the Centre international de formation eruopéene (CIFE) (Nizza/France), and the Jasenovc Memorial Site (Croatia). It is funded by the Foundation “Remembrance, Responsability and Future” (EVZ) in the frame of its program “Education Agenda NS Injustice”.


  1. To develop the mutual knowledge, reflection and discussion on the history of resistance to Nazism and Fascism in Europe during WW2, on its reception since 1945, and on its relevance for today, as a contribution to strengthening a Trans-European culture of memory. We understand the latter as an interactive space that raises questions, questions demonisations and glorifications, takes complexities into account and addresses both the diversity of resistance forms and memories as well as parallels and general tendencies, and also the question of the (non-)interconnectivity of histories and memories of resistance in Europe.
  2. To contribute to the integration of the (post-)Yugoslav space as a full and active part of a European culture of memory, which seems all the more important as this space is often neglected in European history and memory work.
  3. To support Trans-European networks in historical-political education and research, through cooperation between researchers, curators and educational institutions especially from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany and France.


12-13 September 2022, Berlin (D)

Meeting of the Project Team

22-23 October 2022, Sarajevo (BiH)

1st workshop with the Project Team and the Expert Team

15-16 May 2023, Berlin (D)

1st conference “History and historiography of resistance in BiH, HR, D and F”

08-09 July 2023, Nizza (F)

2nd workshop with Project Team and Expert Team

02-03 October 2023, Nizza (F)

2nd conference “Resistance in museums and memorials in BiH, HR, D and F, 1945 to today”

02-03 December 2023, Sarajevo (BiH)

3rd workshop with Project Team and Expert Team

04-05 May 2024, Jasenovac (HR)

4th workshop with Project Team and Expert Team

04-05 July 2024, Sarajevo (BiH)

3rd conference, including opening exhibition, launch portal and presentation academic publication


The project will lead to the production of three complementary outputs, which will be developed with the support of the expert team. All project results will be presented at the final conference in July 2024 in Sarajevo.

Scientific Publication
A scientific publication on the history of resistance against Nazism, fascism, occupation powers and their collaborating regimes during World War 2, and on its transmission after /since 1945, especially in exhibitions and museums. The chapters will be written by members of the expert team and by authors selected through an open call.

Digital Platform
A multilingual educational digital platform with 100 stories about resistance related to the four countries, as well as pedagogical guidelines on how to deal with these stories/ topics.

Exhibition at the History Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
This exhibition at the History Museum of BiH in Sarajevo will deal with the resistance to Nazism, fascism and occupation in BiH / Yugoslavia during World War 2 and its reception after 1945, embedded in its European context.